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seismic monitoring devices The cybersecurity issues of seismic monitoring devices Seismic monitoring devices linked to the internet are vulnerable to cyberattacks that could disrupt data collection and processing, say researchers who have probed the devices for weak points. Common security issues such as non-encrypted data, insecure protocols, and poor user authentication mechanisms are among the biggest culprits that leave seismological networks open to security breaches, Michael Samios of the National Observatory of Athens and colleagues write in a new study. Most seismologists unaware of the vulnerabilities of their IoT devices Modern seismic stations are now implemented as an IoT station, with physical devices that connect and exchange data with other devices and systems over the internet. In their test attacks on different brands of seismographs, accelerographs and GNSS receivers, Samios and his colleagues identified threats to the equipment that information technology security professionals commonly find in IoT devices. “It seems that most seismologists and network operators are unaware of the vulnerabilities of their IoT devices , and the potential risk that their monitoring networks are exposed to,” said Samios. “Educating and supporting seismologists on information security is imperative, as in most cases unauthorized users will try to gain access through a legitimate user’s computer to abuse monitoring networks and IoT devices.” By exploiting these vulnerabilities, a malicious user could alter geophysical data, slow down data transmission and processing, or produce false alarms in earthquake early warning systems, the researchers noted, causing the public to lose trust in seismic monitoring and potentially affecting emergency and economic responses to a seismic event. Security assessment of seismic and GNSS devices Samios and colleagues launched a security assessment of seismic and GNSS devices attached to their own monitoring networks after a security incident at one of their seismic stations. There are several potential weak points in the security of these devices, they noted, including physical security in sometimes remote locations, difficulties and costs of updating security of hardware and software, usage of non-encrypted protocols, and default or easy login credentials. Using their cybersecurity skills, the researchers tested these weak points using a typical “ethical hacking” process to surveil, scan and gain access to geophysical devices with their default settings. The most notable security issues, they discovered, were a lack of data encryption, weak user authentication protocols and the absence of a secure initial-default configuration Samios and colleagues were able to demonstrate a launch of a successful DoS attack against the devices, causing them to be unavailable for the period of the attack, as well as retrieve usernames and passwords for some of the devices. “Security weaknesses between different devices do not depend on the type of the device, but whether this device uses insecure protocols, outdated software and a potentially insecure default configuration,” Samios said. “It is interesting, though, that while these vulnerabilities normally appear on low-cost IoT devices priced at $50 or less, it was also confirmed that they are observed even in seismological and GNSS devices that cost many times more.” Manipulating waveforms transferred by SeedLink As part of their tests, the research team was also able to intercept seismological data transferred through the SeedLink protocol , a data transmission service used by many seismologists. SeedLink may lack some of the necessary encryption and authentication protocols to keep data safe, Samios said. He noted that in a follow-up lab experiment not included in the SRL paper the researchers were able to manipulate waveforms transferred by SeedLink. “This could potentially generate or conceal alarms on earthquake early warning and seismic monitoring systems, leading to disturbing situations,” he said. While device manufacturers and data transmission services should take steps to improve security functions such as data encryption , Samios said, seismic network operators can work with information security experts to help them develop safer user practices and enhance hardware and software systems. our online support request form to get in touch: Bringing your needs into focus: Our unique and hands-on training approach what to run each day, offering also tips on your training. Each weekend, the long run gets longer, peaking for Python package creation and management. 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Fisher Phillips The Virginia temporary regulation, which is currently in the process of being converted to a permanent standard,  requires many employers to, among other things, adopt a written COVID-19 response plan, train employees on COVID-19 practices, assess the risk level of employee exposure to COVID-19 in their workplace, provide PPE and face coverings, provide notification to government agencies and others when COVID-19 cases occur in the workplace, and assess the employer’s sick leave policies, number of shifts, etc., to determine if changing those policies will help combat employee exposure to COVID-19. What Will The Federal Standard Likely Require? Many of the Virginia standard’s requirements will likely be part of the federal regulation. You should expect to see the following requirements in any federal OSHA COVID-19 standard. Like Virginia and other states, the federal COVID-19 standard likely will require many employers to adopt a written COVID-19 response plan. This would set forth the steps the employer is taking and will take to protect employees, along with other provisions the federal regulation will mandate. Expect the federal standard to include appendixes with specific requirements for the response plans of employers in various industries like restaurants, food processing, and retail. Smaller employees (10 or fewer employees) or low-risk workplaces, such as office environments with minimal human interaction, may be exempted from written response plan requirement. 2. Reporting And Notification Requirements Expect the federal standard, like the temporary regulations in Virginia and California, to require all employers (regardless of industry or exposure risk level) to notify their local or state health department when there is more than one COVID-19 case in their workplace during a given period of time, likely 14 days. If three or more cases of COVID-19 occur in the workplace during the same time period, expect to notify federal OSHA as well. Employers will likewise be required to notify, in writing, all employees at the worksite at issue, and likely any third-parties (e.g., contractors) who were there as well.  3. Assessment Of Each Task In The Workplace All four of the adopted state plan emergency temporary standards require employers to assess their workplace to determine what level, if any, of risk employees have of being exposed to or contracting COVID-19. This assessment will include, among other things, looking at what personal protective equipment is required for each task completed in the workplace. The level of risk will obviously vary by industry, and the federal emergency standard likely will mandate different requirements based on the level of risk. Expect the federal standard to require occupancy limits for gathering areas, and face coverings and partitions for all tasks where more than six feet of separation between employees cannot be maintained. Symptom screening of employees and visitors/third-parties prior to entry to worksites may also be required. 4. Training Requirements, Including Instruction On The COVID-19 Response Plan Like the state plan standards, expect the federal regulation to require all employers to train workers on COVID-19, its symptoms, and how to stay healthy during the pandemic.